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Physics / Rigid Body Root

Nodes » Physics » Physics / Rigid Body Root

Method The Rigid Body Root node is the root node of a rigid body physics system. Every node using physics that is parented directly or indirectly to a Rigid Body Root node is part of the same physics system and will interact with each other. 3D Objects, Primitives,…

Physics

Nodes » Physics

Method The nodes in this section allow you to create simple physics systems and dynamic movements for objects in your scene. Generally you create a physics system by hooking up 3D Objects and Shape 3D’s to a Rigid Body Root, and adjusting their internal Physics…

Rigid Body

Nodes » Physics » Rigid Body

Method The Rigid Body node defines a static or dynamic rigid body collision object. This is a 3D body that moves under physics and collides with other objects in the same physics system – under the same Rigid Body Root. It must be parented to a Rigid Body Root…

Rigid Body Procedural

Nodes » Physics » Rigid Body Procedural

Method The Rigid Body Procedural node allows a procedural system to be used as a static collider for rigid bodies. It must be parented to a Rigid Body Root. Inputs Name Description Typical Node Input Procedural Root The root node of…

Rigid Body Effector

Nodes » Cloning » Effectors » Rigid Body Effector

Method The Rigid Body Effector node turns clones into rigid bodies. The resulting bodies are able to collide with each other, or with other bodies that are part of the same physics system – under the same Rigid Body Root. If this node is parented via a Rigid…

Rigid Body Depth Image

Nodes » Physics » Rigid Body Depth Image

Method The Rigid Body Collision Depth Image node is used to allow Kinect depth to collide with mesh in the rigid body simulation. Example graph Attributes Name Description Flip Image Flip the Image in the Y…

Rigid Body Force Affector

Nodes » Physics » Rigid Body Force Affector

Method The Rigid Body Force Affector node allows forces to be applied to a rigid body system. Example Example Nodegraph Transform Name Description Position X Move its position along the…

Rigid Body Collision Affector

Nodes » Particles » Affectors » Rigid Body Collision Affector

Method This node simulates collisions between particles and a Rigid Body Systems. Attributes Name Description Collision Velocity Scale Scales the velocity of the particle after a collision so they can be made to slow down. Point…

Rigid Body Collision Mesh

Nodes » Physics » Rigid Body Collision Mesh

Method The Rigid Body Collision Mesh node is used to allow rigid bodies to collide with a static, complex mesh – such as a displaced floor. Collisions with a Collision Mesh node use tests against polygons treated as thin planes. This is less robust than…

Nodes

Nodes

This is the Notch node reference. Notch node types: Cameras: Cameras define the point of view, perspective and aspect from which the scene is rendered. Cloning: Cloners instantiate multiple copies of geometry nodes – such as 3D Objects, Text Nodes and Shape…

Nodes

Nodes » Nodes

Method This section contains a group of mostly miscellaneous nodes. Colour Colour Ramp Comment Debug Log Image 2D Layer Precomp Mapping Motion Direction Follower Motion Predictor OSC Output Parent To Vertex Render Layer Render To Texture Root Screen…

Raytracing Nodes

Techniques » Raytracing Techniques » Raytracing Nodes

Reflections nodes RT Mirror Reflection A single bounce mirror reflection node is the simplest and most efficient raytraced reflection. *This node is great for real-time projects. *There is no surface roughness for this node RT Multi-Bounce Reflection Using the…

Shading Nodes

Nodes » Shading Nodes

Method These nodes change the ways that material nodes apply to an objects, and how their materials are shaded on the object surface. Gallery Noise Fractal Shading Grid Shading Node Gradient Shading Node…

Render Nodes

Nodes » Procedural » Render Nodes

Method These nodes convert the procedural distance field into rendered geometry, voxel grids, or other systems. Gallery Procedural Meshing Procedural Shading Node Volume Generator Volumetric Tracer…

Blacktrax Tracked Body

Nodes » Interactive » Blacktrax Tracked Body

Method Takes a single Blacktrax Trackable and provides it as a tracked point (a bit like Null). You can track either the rigid body position and rotation of a given trackable or just individual tracked LEDs. To use, parent other objects to this node to have the…

Execute Child Nodes

Nodes » Logic » Execute Child Nodes

Method Allows you to enable or disable the execution of connected child nodes at runtime. This is useful for menu systems or general logic. Example Nodegraph Attributes Name Description Execute Children Nodes …

NVIDIA AR Body Tracker

Nodes » Video Processing » Feature Tracking » NVIDIA AR Body Tracker

Method This node utilises the NVIDIA Broadcast SDK running on the NVIDIA RTX GPUs to pick out human forms from video, then generate and track 3D skeleton of their body. This technology may eliminate the need for physical motion capture suits in some circumstances. …

NVIDIA AR Body Tracker Skeleton

Nodes » Geometry » NVIDIA AR Body Tracker Skeleton

Method This node applies the tracked skeleton from the NVIDIA AR Body Tracker to the skeleton of a connected rigged character. !This node requires the installation of the NVIDIA AR SDK, which can be downloaded here : NVIDIA AR SDK. Make sure you get the correct…

Select Render Layer For Child Nodes

Nodes » Nodes » Select Render Layer For Child Nodes

Method This node can assign its direct or indirect children to a different Render Layer than the one that the hierarchy would otherwise assign them to. This node is particularly useful in virtual production workflows, where separate render layers are used for front…

Shape 3D

Nodes » Geometry » Shape 3D

Method This node renders a 3D primitive mesh that has been generated according to various attributes. The Shape Type parameter defines the primitive shape used. The Subdivisions X/Y parameters determine how many subdivisions the primitive has, and the Axis defines…

3D Object

Nodes » Geometry » 3D Object

Method This node renders a 3D object that has been imported from an external file in one of the supported 3D object file formats: Lightwave LWO, Wavefront OBJ, Cinema4D and FBX. As well as being rendered directly, 3D Object nodes may also be used as an input for…

Effectors

Nodes » Cloning » Effectors

Method Effector nodes modify the transformation values of clones in cloner node systems. Effectors are hooked into Cloning nodes as inputs. Gallery FFT Effector Image Effector Plain Effector Randomise Effector …

Blacktrax Array

Nodes » Interactive » Array Sources » Blacktrax Array

Method Takes multiple Blacktrax Trackables and instantiates the child nodes at the tracked points. You can track either the rigid body positions and rotation (Centroids) of given trackables or every LED of the trackable. See the Array Sources node to see how this…

Cloning

Nodes » Cloning

Method Cloning nodes clone 3D objects in various ways. Cloning is supported for 3D Objects, 3D Shapes, and Image Planes. Cloning is rendered using hardware instancing on the GPU, making it performance efficient. To clone an object it must be parented to the output of…

Particle Bone Deformer

Nodes » Deformers » Particle Bone Deformer

Method Use a particle a particle system to affect the bones of a 3D Object or Shatter Primitive 3D nodes. Attributes Name Description Physics Velocity Dampening Dampen the changes in velocity for smoother movement. Fixed…

Particle Root

Nodes » Particles » Particle Root

Method This node is the root and container for every particle system. Particle Emitters, Particle Affectors and Particle Rendering Nodes must be parented to this node directly or indirectly in order to be operational. The node contains a number of controls that are…

Particle Mesh Deformer

Nodes » Deformers » Particle Mesh Deformer

Method Vertices of the 3D Mesh are manipulated as particles by a particle affector. Example Example Bin Example Project Attributes Name Description Physics Velocity Dampening Dampen the changes in…

Collision Affector

Nodes » Particles » Affectors » Collision Affector

Method This node simulates collisions between particles and a 3D object. It uses ray traced intersections with triangles contained in a bounding volume hierarchy structure. This allows for fast, accurate collisions with 3D objects, but animating, generated or…

Geometry

Nodes » Geometry

Method Geometry nodes all generate or are modified by geometry. Geometry is generally hooked into the Root node, although they can be applied to any node – they will still appear in the scene as long as there is a path to a Root node; they will inherit the…

Depth Camera / Kinect Source

Nodes » Video Processing » Input Output » Depth Camera / Kinect Source

Method This node is used to read colour and depth data from a Kinect Or RealSense camera. This node carries both colour and depth information. Post Effect nodes and Video Processing nodes attached to this node will operate on the colour data only, unless specifically…

Interactive

Nodes » Interactive

Method Interactive nodes give outputs based on various kinds of live inputs. Most work with numerical values, although the RSS Feed Node and RSS Text Selector output a text string, and the Mouse Picker outputs translation data. Interactive nodes can be applied to…

Replace Text String

Nodes » Text Strings » Replace Text String

Method This node replaces a particular string of text within a larger body of text, which then can be used as an input into other nodes – typically the Text node. Example Example Nodegraph Example Project…

Notch 0.9.23 Release Notes

Release Notes » Notch 0.9.23 Release Notes

0.9.23.200 (16th patch release, 6th May 2021): Changes [Middleware] Updated to NVIDIA Aftermath v2021.1. [Node] Composite Image node: Updated the node to scale the Alpha Image input in the same way as the Image input. Bug Fixes [Node] UV Camera node: Fixed…

Logic

Nodes » Logic

Method The Logic nodes are used to create a meta logic system within Notch. Time These nodes interact with the Notch projects playhead. Jump to Time Loop Time Selecting Nodes These nodes control the active or inactive state of the nodes below…

Antialiasing

Nodes » Post-FX » Antialiasing

Method These nodes calculate better antialiasing than the default. Antialiasing nodes don’t apply to the same nodes as the rest of the Post-Fx nodes, and instead, function on these nodes, Cameras (will only be applied when the scene is viewed through a…

Blur

Nodes » Post-FX » Blur

Method Blur nodes defocus images, making them appears less clear. These are useful in many scenarios, from cleaning up the harsh edges on a key mask to creating depth of field for the image. They follow the same order of operations as all the other post-fx…

Image Processing

Nodes » Video Processing » Image Processing

Method These nodes analyse and modify the image with different effects. Can be applied to all the same nodes as the Video Processing group. Unlike Post-FX nodes (many of which are shared with these nodes), these do not affect the parent with the effect and instead…

Video Processing

Nodes » Video Processing

Method Video processing nodes control video post-fx in the scene. Video Processing nodes can be parented to these nodes, and will output an effect. Render To Texture All Video Processing Nodes (although you will mostly use Video Source and Video Null) Aside…

Auto Bounding Box

Nodes » Geometry » Auto Bounding Box

Method This node generates a bounding box based on the combined size of nodes input into the nodes Bounds Nodes input. Inputs Name Description Typical Node Input Bounds Nodes Input nodes from which a combined bounding box will be…

Colour Processing

Nodes » Post-FX » Colour Processing

Method Colour Processing nodes are used to modify the colours in an image. Colour Processing nodes can be applied directly to all the same nodes as the rest of the post-fx nodes. Gallery Apply Colour LUT Colour Grading…

Image Compression

Nodes » Post-FX » Image Compression

Method Compress or decompress images with different kinds of compression. Image Compression nodes can be applied directly to all the same nodes as the rest of the post-fx nodes. Compress UV Animation Decompress UV Animation

Warping

Nodes » Post-FX » Warping

Method These nodes take an image and stretch or squash them in different ways. Warping nodes can be applied directly to all the same nodes as the rest of the post-fx nodes. Gallery Barrel Distortion Bezier Warp…

Feature Tracking

Nodes » Video Processing » Feature Tracking

Method Feature tracking nodes detect and track features in an image. These nodes are currently under development, so your mileage may vary. Can be applied to all the same nodes as the Video Processing group.

Stylisation

Nodes » Post-FX » Stylisation

Method These nodes modify the image. Stylisation nodes can be applied directly to all the same nodes as the rest of the post-fx nodes. Gallery 3D Object Outline Cross Hatch Digital Block Glitch Digital Chroma…

Shading

Nodes » Particles » Shading

Method Shading nodes change the colour or position of the particles in various ways. Some shading nodes are used to tint particles based on their own individual attributes such as their life or velocity; others consider them as a system and shade them by density of…

Image Processing

Nodes » Post-FX » Image Processing

Method These nodes analyse and modify the image with different effects. Image Processing nodes can be applied directly to all the same nodes as the rest of the post-fx nodes. Gallery Auto Key Colour Mask Bit Crush …

Nodegraph

User Interface » Nodegraph

Main Window This window contains the node based scripting tools for Notch. Nodegraph Controls Label Description Copy Copy the currently select node or nodes. Cut Copy and delete the currently selected node…

Distortion

Nodes » Post-FX » Distortion

Method Changes the shape of the image in different ways. Distortion nodes can be applied directly to all the same nodes as the rest of the post-fx nodes. Gallery Distortion Dither Line Distortion Noise RGB…

Select Child Node

Nodes » Logic » Select Child Node

Method Allows you to selectively enable or disable the execution of connected child nodes at runtime based on an index. Only one child node can be active at a time, but when used in conjunction with Null or Execute Child Nodes, you can add a tree of child nodes. This…

Kinect Setup

Devices & Protocols » Kinect Setup

Introduction Notch can read both RGB and Depth data from both the Kinect 1, Kinect 2 and Kinect 4 depth sensors. You can use this data in a whole variety of ways, from generating meshes, emitting particles, generating fields, and using the depth and colour images in…

Generators

Nodes » Generators

Method These nodes generate different black and white effects that can be overlayed, or used to modify other nodes. Also fields. Lots of cool stuff with fields. Generators can be applied directly to these nodes, however, if applied to other nodes it will affect the…

Node Hierarchies

Node Hierarchies

Data Flow Nodes are connected in a parent / child hierarchy. This is first and foremost a transform hierarchy: parent transformations are applied to the child, composited with the child’s own transformation – so the parent moves the child with itself. The…

Render To Texture

Nodes » Nodes » Render To Texture

Method This node renders all its child nodes and their sub-trees to a separate off-screen texture / precomposition. This texture may then be applied anywhere that takes an image or video node as input: materials, video nodes, Image2D nodes, Image Planes and so on.…

Input Output

Nodes » Video Processing » Input Output

Method These nodes control where video is imported from, and where video is output to. Can be applied to all the same nodes as the Video Processing group.

Post-FX

Nodes » Post-FX

Method Post-FX nodes are mostly effects added onto an image, after the scene is rendered. These can vary from Colour Correction to FXAA antialiasing, and are generally used to enhance an image. The order of operations are decided based on the Y value of the node in…

Generators

Nodes » Post-FX » Generators

Method These nodes effect the input image by compositing mathematically generated patterns onto them. Generators nodes don’t affect all the same nodes as the rest of the post-fx nodes, as each node functions differently. The Gradient 2D node and Gradient…

GetNumChildren()

Javascript » API Reference » Node Object » GetNumChildren()

Purpose Returns the number of child nodes. Syntax int GetNumChildren(); returns an integer of the number of child nodes. Example function Update() { layer = Document.FindLayer("My Layer"); node = layer.FindNode("Frame Buffer"); n =…

GetNumNodes()

Javascript » API Reference » Layer Object » GetNumNodes()

Purpose Returns the number of nodes in the layer. Syntax int GetNumNodes(); returns an integer of the number of nodes in the layer. Example function Update() { layer = Document.FindLayer("My Layer"); var x = layer.GetNumNodes(); }

Depth Processing

Nodes » Video Processing » Depth Processing

Method Depth Processing nodes generate and change depth data using various techniques. Can be applied to all the same nodes as the Video Processing group. Luminance From Depth

Motion Processing

Nodes » Video Processing » Motion Processing

Method These nodes analyse a video for movement, and give outputs based on that movement. Can be applied to all the same nodes as the Video Processing group.

Timeline

User Interface » Timeline

Top Bar This window lists all of the layers and effects in the current project, useful for sequencing and timing effects to run together. Timeline Controls Label Description Copy Copy the currently select node or nodes.…

Render To Surfaces

Nodes » Nodes » Render To Surfaces

Method This node renders connected objects and lights onto the surface of chosen objects. Attributes Name Description Width Width of rendered texture. Height Width of rendered texture. Background Colour …

Spline Follower

Nodes » Nodes » Spline Follower

Method This node translates a child object along an input spline. The child may also optionally be rotated to point along the direction of the spline. Attributes Name Description Spline Time The percentage along the spline the child…

Lighting

Nodes » Lighting

Method Lighting nodes are nodes that control lighting in a scene. Most emit light from different shapes or objects, but some control how light is emitted or scattered in the scene. Lighting nodes are generally hooked into the Root node, although they can be applied…

Rendering

Nodes » Fields » Rendering

Method Rendering nodes visualise the field or control how it is rendered and shaded. Any Rendering nodes need to be connected to a Field Root node, and will only render fields within that field system (unless modified appropriately). Rendering …

Rendering

Nodes » Particles » Rendering

Method Rendering nodes visualise the particles by spawning images, meshes or trails. Multiple rendering nodes may be connected to the same particle system, allowing the same particles to be rendered in multiple different ways at once. Any Rendering nodes need to be…

Cloners and Particles

Techniques » Raytracing Techniques » Cloners and Particles

Cloners Cloners will work well with any raytracing nodes and scenes, as long as they are using shape 3d’s or 3d objects. Particles Particles will work well with any raytracing nodes and scenes, as long as they are using shape 3d’s or 3d objects. …

Materials

Nodes » Materials

Method Material nodes control how light interacts with the surfaces of objects. These nodes will accept a material input as a material. 3D Object Shape 3D Shatter Primitive 3D Text Multi Material (Used to create new materials from other…

Generators

Nodes » Procedural » Generators

Method These nodes serve the purpose of generating a distance field for use in a procedural. Usually, the starting point in the process of creating a procedural surface or volume is to add one of these nodes. Gallery 3D…

Reflections and Refractions

Techniques » Raytracing Techniques » Reflections and Refractions

Reflections Raytraced reflections are more accurate reflections than Screen Spaced Reflections. The images below show the difference between each raytracing nodes reflections. Sky light The Sky light reflects the skydome HDR environment map, it will not reflect the…

Imported 3D Scene

Nodes » Geometry » Imported 3D Scene

Method This node instanciates a 3D scene which has been imported from one of the valid scene file formats: Lightwave LWS, FBX or Cinema4D. The scene resource must be set via the “Lightwave Scene” parameter. The scene is then rendered faithfully to the…

Spline

Nodes » Geometry » Spline

Method This node defines a spline in 3D space from a number of control points. Control points are specified by linking Null nodes to the Spline Nodes input. The position of each Null is used as the position of the control point; the rotation of the Null is used to…

UV Camera

Nodes » Cameras » UV Camera

Method Renders the contents of a connected 3D objects surface back into its UV texture map. This is most commonly used with media servers for projection mapped objects, where Notch renders the contents of the object’s surface and passes it to the media server…

Procedural

Nodes » Procedural

Method In Notch a procedural is a 3-dimensional field of signed distances. This is often known as a Signed Distance Field. An SDF alone does not represent geometry, but surfaces and volumes can be extracted from the field and rendered conventionally. Notch provides…

Raytracing Techniques

Techniques » Raytracing Techniques

Raytracing Basics Raytracing Lighting Raytracing Nodes An overview of basic raytracing setup. Raytraced light examples. Raytraced nodes groups. Reflections and Refractions Pathtracer Basics…

Text String

Nodes » Text Strings » Text String

Method This node can be used to represent a text string, which can be used to input text into other nodes – typically the Text node or string manipulation nodes such as Combine Text Strings and Split Text Strings. Example Example…

Cameras

Nodes » Cameras

Method Cameras are used to view a 3D scene. Cameras are generally hooked into the Root node, although they can be applied to any node – they will still appear in the scene as long as there is a path to a Root node; they will inherit the transformation values…

State Machine

Nodes » Logic » State Machine

Method The definition of a state machine is: a logic device which can be in one of a set number of stable conditions depending on its previous condition and on the present values of its inputs The Notch State Machine system allows certain nodes to become active on…

State Machine State

Nodes » Logic » State Machine State

Method The State Machine State acts as a parent to a set of child nodes. When the state is active, the child nodes will be executed / rendered. This node should be parented to a State Machine node. The state can have one or multiple State Machine Events connected to…

Fields

Nodes » Fields

Introduction A field is a grid of voxels. A voxel is a 3D pixel that contains the following data: “Ink” – RGBA Colour information “Movement Vector” – XYZ Vector By holding colour / “ink” information in the voxel,…

Transform Array

Nodes » Interactive » Array Sources » Transform Array

Method This node is used to create an Array of ‘points’ from various other internal Notch sources. Specifically: Point Source Effect Sets of Nulls Multiple Null nodes can be attached to the Point Source input to create an array…

Cylindrical Camera

Nodes » Cameras » Cylindrical Camera

Method Cylindrical Camera enables a 360 degree panoramic render. Transform Name Description Position X Move its position along the x-axis in local space. Position Y Move its position along the y-axis in local space.…

Multi Camera

Nodes » Cameras » Multi Camera

Method The Multi Camera node enables multiple camera views to be rendered simultaneously, for example for output to a single media server canvas. Multiple cameras are passed in via the Camera Nodes input and combined into the main canvas with the views arranged…

Particles

Nodes » Particles

Method Particle nodes are nodes used in a particles system. This system starts with a Particle Root Node, and is built out with Emitter, Affector and Shader nodes, before finally being rendered to the camera with a Renderer node. The Particle Root Node contains the…

Directional Light

Nodes » Lighting » Directional Light

Method Add a directional light node to a scene to produce ambient directional lighting throughout. Light is emitted in a parallel direction at the normal to an infinite plane. *Directional lights do not cast shadows. Example Nodegraph…

Using Substance Designer Materials with Procedurals

Nodes » Materials » Substance Material » Using Substance Designer Materials with Procedurals

Using Substance Material with Procedurals Meshes. You can use Substance Designer Materials with Procedurals Meshes. It works the same way as with standard material. Unlike a classic object, you simply need to add a node…

Sound

Nodes » Sound

Method These nodes control sound and sound output in Notch. They can be applied to any node in Notch and will either play sound in the scene, or record sound from an audio input device. Outputs can be used as an input to other nodes to drive effects such as the FFT…

Screen Space Reflections

Nodes » Lighting » Screen Space Reflections

Method Generate screen space reflections (SSR) for objects in the scene. To see this function, “Reflections” must be enabled in the objects material node or section. ! The material nodes Roughness attribute defines the clarity of the reflections, with…

Curve Editor

User Interface » Curve Editor

Main Window This window lists all of the keyed attributes for the selected nodes and shows how the values between the keys will be interpolated. Note that “interpolation” is also known as “easing”. Curve Editor…

Procedural Root

Nodes » Procedural » Procedural Root

Method This node is the root and container for every procedurals system. Procedural Generators, Procedural Cloners and Procedural Rendering nodes must be parented to this node directly or indirectly in order to be operational. Example …

User Interface

User Interface

Overview The Notch User Interface is broken into several main sections: Resource Window, Where all the media files can be imported for use in Notch. Properties Window, Where attributes of nodes can be changed or altered for different variations on…

Keyboard Shortcuts

Keyboard Shortcuts

Download these as a PDF We’ve made a quick reference guide (suitable for printing) available as a PDF for download as well. You can get it here. Viewport Keys Orbit Camera Regular Camera Alt + LMB Rotate around pivot point …

Region Camera

Nodes » Cameras » Region Camera

Method Creates a camera whose view is fixed to a particular plane/region of space. This is very useful for generating content for tracking effects in physical space (e.g. Blacktrax). You can use real world measurements to set up the plane of space and then set a…

Raytracing Basics

Techniques » Raytracing Techniques » Raytracing Basics

Enabling raytracing To enable raytracing in your scene. Select the root node, in its properties under the Raytracing heading, tick the “enabled” checkbox. You can toggle raytracing using Shift+R or by clicking on the enable raytracing…

Scripting

Nodes » Scripting

Method Scripting nodes allow for project behaviour to be scripted using Javascript.

VR Headset Camera

Nodes » Cameras » VR Headset Camera

Method VR headset camera, currently compatible with the Oculus Rift Consumer Edition and HTC Vive. The camera reads the head tracking data from the VR headset and renders the appropriate view inline with the headset vendors specifications. See Using Headset VR for…

Combine Colour Grades

Nodes » Post-FX » Colour Processing » Combine Colour Grades

Method Combine multiple Colour Grading nodes together before use on the parent image or scene. Attributes Name Description Blend Amount Changes the opacity of the new effect over the original image. Max Range Set a maximum…

Modifiers

Nodes » Modifiers

Method Modifier nodes modify the attributes in other nodes. Modifiers can be applied to almost any attribute of a node, simply double click a node in the nodegraph to see its attribute list, and connect a valid modifier to the square next to the attribute. If an…

Exposable Array

Nodes » Interactive » Array Sources » Exposable Array

Method This node allows you to take full control over the arrays directly from the media server when running back as a block. This is useful for when you are trying to design the interactive setup where the media server is the main hub of control for the hardware that…

Deformers

Nodes » Fields » Deformers

Method These nodes deform the entire field system at render time, without changing the underlying simulation. Fbm Deformer Sine Deformer